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滨海国际PT布法罗闪电战游戏【chinacgli.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。黔南际览信用担保有限公司(原黄南窍堪酌企业管理有限公司)成立于1997年,占地面积65679平方米,万濠会公司app官网其中生产厂房占地2808平方米,仓库面积占地7253平方米。固定资产3308万元,流动资产7936万元,干部职工共106人,工程技术人员63人。滨海国际PT布法罗闪电战游戏LuWeiResearchReportNo160,2000Difficultiesinfund-raisingbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(“SMEs”):First,someoftheseenterprisesdonothavesufficientmortgages,,,mostofthebusinessesundertakenbytheseenterprisesareofacompetitivecharacter,inwhichbankruptcyratioandbigrisksinfund-raisingarecomparativelyhigh,,thegovernmentsofmanycountrieshaveformulatedcorrespondingpo,includingcreditguaranteewithgovernmentparticipation,mutualguaranteebetweenSMEsthemselves,,thegovernmentsofmanycountriesandregionshavetakentheestablishmentofacreditguaranteesystemforSMEswithgovernmentparticipationasanimportantpolicytosupportSMEs,tes,JapanandTaiwanProvinceofChinaTheUnitedStates,JapanandTaiwanhavea,however,tparticipation(1).Withgovevernmentallocations,orsuppliedbygovernments,financialinstitutions,,thefundsearmarkedforSmallBusinessCreditGuaranteeProgramintheUnitedStatesareprovideddirectlybythefed,thecapitalfundsofthecoffersofcreditinsurancefinancialcoffersofSMEs,localgovernments,,thedonationtionsfromthegovernment,banks,andfinancialinstitutions,withgovernmentdonationsaccountingfor80percentofthetotal.(2).Itisnotanecessitythatallguaranteeinstitutionsfun,thefundsoftheSmallBusinessCreditGuaranteePrograminitiatedbythefederalgovernmentoftheUnitedStatescomeexclusivelyfromappropriationsofthefederalgovernmentbutareexecutedandmanagedbytheSmallBusinessAdministration,,thefundscomefromtheirrespectivegovernments,butareactuallyoperatedbyassociations,fundsandotherspecializedorganizations,underthesupervisionofgovernmentadministrations.(3).Theguarante,intheUnitedStatesandTaiwanProvince,thesystemofone-tierguaranteeinstitutionswithlocalbrancheshasbeenintroduced,whileinJapan,thesystemofmulti-tierguaranteehasbeeninstalled:guaranteefromthecreditinsurancecoffersattcetolocalcreditguaranteeassociations,withthereinsuranceratiostandingat70-80percent.(4).TheformsoalappropriationstoreplenishthecreditguaranteefundsforSMEs,withcompensationsforgua,thefederalgovernmentoftheUnitedStatesmakesbudgetary,however,haveanirregularsourceoffundreplenishment,,therefore,compensationsforguaationAlltheprojectsofcreditguarantees,governmentguaranteeprogramsallcontainclear-cutrequirementonthesizesandcharactersoftheobjectsofguarantee,andalltheg,itisclarifiedthatemphasiswouldbeputonenterprisesthatcannotobtainloansorfundingthroughnormalchannelsoffund-raising,referringmainlytothosesmallenterprisest,allguaranteeprogramshaonofemployment,supporttoSMEsinexportandtechnicalupgrading,replenishmentofseasonalworkingcapital,fdevelopmentandadoptdifferentmanagementsystems,,theguaranteeprogramoftheUnitedStatesisdesignedtoprovideguaranteetosomespecialcommunities,includingenterprisesrunbywomen,thedisabled,demobilizedarmymenorminoritypeople,,istailoredtotheindustrialpoliciesofthegovernmentandbasedmainlyindustrialpolicies,,itemsofguaranteetoundertakingsofcreationbyyoungpeopleanddevelopmentofnamebrandsbyenterpriseshavebeenestablishedunderthecreditguaranteefundsinlinewiththegovernmentprogramforthedevelopmentofSMEs,focusingonsupporttosmallbusinessofanewundertakingcharacter....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.XieFuzhanEconomicsecurityandotherelementslikeeconomicgrowth,fullemployment,economicstabilityandequa’smacro-managementdifferatdifferentdevelopmentstages,indifferentcountriesandagainstdifferentinternationalbackgrounds,buteconomicsecurityisthetargetofmacr,eachcountryisgraduallyexpandingitsopennessandthecross-countryflowofcapital,information,,thereisnoeconomicsecurityforindividualsandhouseholds,,wealsoneedtopayattentiontoandconcernaboutanumberofhouseholdsandindividualstroubledandthreatenedbyeconomicsecurityproblemsevenwh,socialandenviron:first,theinfluencesofmacro-managementonhumaneconomicsecurity;second,thechallengesfacingChina’seconomicsecurity;third,ecurityofindividualsandhouseholdsinvolvesemploymentopportunities,incomelevel,wealthappreciationanddepreciation,utofpovertygraduallywhilewealthyindividualsandhou;short-termorlong-termandsustained;:First,,fastandhealthynationaleconomicgrowth,,,Chinahasbeenstickingtothepolicyoftakingeconomicc,%,andtheannualgro%.%.om250millionbeforethereformandopening-upto34millionbytheendof1999andthegenerallivideconomicdevelopmentwiththenationalforeignexchangereservetotaling160billionUSD,,,nomattercausedbyinflationordeflation,willexertnecome,tojoblesspeopleandtopeopleandhouseholdsbelongingtothedepartments,sect,duetothesupplysurplusonthemarket,,whichresultinunemploymentordeclinedincome,,,theincreaseofnetincomepercapitaforruralresidentssloweddown,andin1990and1991,theincreaseratewasonly2%.Undertheconditionofdeflationin1997and1999,the,therewereincreasedlaid-offworkersanddecreasednewempl,Chinesegovernmentincreasedbyalargemargintheincomeofmediumandlow-incomeurbanresidents,andtookmeasurestoissuetimelythebasiclivingcostallowndandoptimizingthequalityofmacroeconomicoperation,ontheotherhand,,currentlyinChina,somemacro-policieshave,thechangesinemploymentsystemhavebrokenthe“ironbowl”oftheplanningeconomicsystem,whichhaveraisedtheuncertaintyofpeople’sincomeexpectationandpeople’sawarenesstohandlecrisisinfutureeconomicsecurity,,housingreformandmedicalcarereformhavebrokentheoriginalbenefitdistributionpattern,,thereformofhighereducationsystemhasincreasedtheprospectexpenditureonchildren’’sfutureincomeandexpenditurebalancebroughtbythesereforms,people’sconsumptionpsychologyandbehaviorhavebeenaffectedandtheirreactiontot,butmanyreformmeasuresaremorefavorabletopeoplewithvestedinterestsandresultedingreatervulnerabilngreformandimplementingmacro-policies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    eoverthegainsandcostsofChina’sentrytoWTOaccordingtothecommitmentChinamadeduringthenegotiationssothattheinstitutionsofvarioussectorswons,weadoptedthecalculablegeneralequilibriumapproachtoanalyzetheoverall,departmentalandregionalimparkandaffectedbyexogenousshockorpolicychanges,,stimulatedbytheWorldBank(WB)andotherinternationalorganizations,manyresearchersusecalculablegeneralequilibriummodeltoanalyzet’svariousdepartmentsandregions(DRCCGE).IttakesintoconsiderationthestructuralcharacteristicsofChina’seconomyintermsofforeigntrade,’,,weadoptedthelatestinput-outputtable(1997),web,thismodelanalyzesandtakesintoconsiderationoffouraspectsconcerningChina’sentryintoWTO:(1)Reductionoftariffonindustrialproductsandeliminationofnon-tariffbarriers;(2)Reductionoftariffonagriculturalproductsandintroductionoftariffquotamechanism;(3)Increaseofforeigncapitalinflowduetotheopeningofmoreinvestmentareas;(4)EliminationofMFAquotaforChina’,wehavenotincludedsomeotherimportantaspectsrelatingtotheWTOmembershipintheanalysis,suchasopeningservicetrade,intellectualpropertyright(IPR),’,itisassumedthatChinajoinsWTOin2001andpolicycha–fre-allocationbasedoncomparableadvantageswhilethelatterreflectsthe“overfloweffect”causedbytheexpansionofforeigntradeandentryofforeigncapitalastheyarepromotingmarketcompetitionandintroductionandabsorptionoftechnologies,ionisconsidered,afterChinaimplementsitscommitmentsforWTOentryin2005,China’(pricein1997),%considered,weestimatethattheWTOentrywoulddriveupChina’,wecanfindthatagricultural,it,’(SeeChart1).China’stextileandgarmentsectorwillbethemainbeneficiaryof(automobiles,edibleoilandwheat),astheimportquotasforwheatandcottonincreasemoreslowly,by7%%respectivelyfrom2000to2005,’movementand,theshrinkageofagriculturemeansthatpartofthe,from2001to2005,m,ductsareofsignificancetothetransferofChina’,theirgrowthwouldbeconducive’sentryintoWTO,fWTOwouldnotthreatenChina’,thegrainself-sufficiencyratewouldstillbekeptatmorethan94%.cgrowthofChinaandbringsgreatgainstothecountryingeneral,butthimportprotectionmeasures,,whichwouldint,somefarmerscouldtransfertoothersectors,butcomparedwiththebenchmark,ruralresidents’%%.Consideringthealreadybigurban-ruralincomegap,China’sentryintoWTOwouldbringnegativeimpactovertheincomedistribution....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.’sRuralLaborMovementSinceReformandOpeningupSincethemid-1980s,,employmentbyTVEsroseto136millionpeople,,theoveralleconomicenvironmentforTVEsbeganundergoingtremendouschangesandente,theseenterprises’,TVEsemployedatotalof128millionpeople,,alpeopleare,AnhuiandGuizhouandthecityofChongqing,thoseworkingoutsiderespectivelyaccountfor65percent,,5,Hubei,,mostprovincesandautonomousregionshave,theimpactofruralpeopleworkingouts,,whilethephaveenteredtheurbanareas,withtheratiobetweenlargeandmedium-sizedcities,smallcitiesandtowns(includingthecounty-levelcities)andtheruralareasbeing4:4:,theruralpeopleemployedoutsidetheir,whilethefarming-relatednetincomeoftheruralpeoplecontinuedtodecline,theaverag,thegovernmentpolicyconcerningruralemploymentwastoencouragepeopletoflowlocally,namely"leavingfarmlandinsteadoftownshipsandenteringfactoriesinsteadofcities".Beginningfromthemid-1980s,however,thendustrialandcommercialoccupations,especiallyafterDengXiaopingmadestatementsduringhissouthChinainspectiontourinthespringof1992,thegovernmeuallyrecognize,,the3rdPlenarySessionofthe14thCPCCentralCommitteeissuedtheResolutionoftheCPCCentralCommitteeonSeveralIdguidedtograduallytransf,theMinistryofLaborissuedtheProvisionalReg-,asystembasedonemploymentpermissioncameintofor,thegeneralofficeoftheCPCCentralCommitteeissuedthe,aunifiedsystemofemploymentcertificateandtemporaryresidencepermitformigrantpopulationescopeofproduction,deve,rurallaborforceshouldbeguidedtoflowinanorderlymannerinkeep,thestate’sem’sCongressapprovedthe10thFive-yearPlanforNationalEconomicandSocialDevelopment,,thesystemofseparatingurbanandruralareasshouldbeabolishedinordertograduallyestablishanewurban-ruralrelationshipconsistentwiththesystemofmarketeconomy;theurbanresidenceregistrationsystemshouldbereformedinordertoformamechanismconducivetotheorderlyflowofurbanandruralpeople;theunreasonablerestrictionsonrurallaborforceseekingemploymentintheurbanareasshouldberemovedinordertoguidetherurallaborsurplustoflonfortnismshouldbebrokendown,thatexceptforafewmegacities,theemploymentsystembasedonurban-ruralseparationshouldbereformed,andtherestrictiveemploymentpoliciesinvariousregionsthatweresp,theStateCouncilapprovedthepublicationoftheProposalsoftheMinistryofPublicSecurityonPromo,permanentresidenceregistrationshouldbegrantedtothosefarmersandtheirdirectrelativeslivingwiththemintheurbanareasofthecounty-levelcities,thetownswherethecountygovernmentsarebasedandtheadministrativetownsaslongastheyhaownsshouldenjoythesamerightsandfulfillthesameobligationsasthelocalresidentsdoinareassuchasschooling,,anditwouldbeillegaltolevyurbancapacityexpansionfeeorothersimfarmersenteringtheurbanareasshouldbefairlytreated,rationallyguided,sonablerestrictionsandillegalleviesonthefarmerswhoentertheurbanareasfo,variouslaborintermediaryorganizationorkingintheurbanareassoastosafeguardtheirlegitimaterightsandinterests....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.10-200米sthattheultimatetargetsofeconomicrestructuringaimatoptimizingandupgradingtheindustrialstructure,improvingthemarketadaptabilityandcompetitivenessofenterprises,andraisingthecries,,allcountrieshavetakentheindustrialstructure,regionalstructure,technologicalstructure,enterprisestructure,thestructureofpropizedthroughupgrading,ntintheseareas,:A,inthefinalanalysis,,competitivenessandagrowingmarketshareareabletoobtaincapitalthroughthecapitalmarketandthusgrowstronger,whilethosewithbadperformanceandagloomyprospectofmarketgrowthcan’ructure,becauseprofit-orientedinvestmentofinvestorswillnaturallystimulat:Topromoteindustrialupgradingwi,technologicalinnovatio,withanuncertainprossverydifficultforthemtoraisealar,only:Econ,withtherapiddevelopmentofeconomicglobalizationandinformationtechnology,,andtheyareunprecedentedintermsofthemagnitude,,whichunitetoseeklowercostsandhigherefficiency,rises:ThefinancialsystemsofmanyAsiancountrieshaver,allcountriesconcernedhavesetouttoreformtheirser:First,theirbadassets;pouringpublicfundintofinancialinstitutionstoreplenishreservefundforbaddebts;es,,thegovernmentwillorderthemtoclosedownforliquidation,orhavethemmergedwithwell-performinginstitutions,alsufficiencyandhavepotentialhugerisks,thegovernmentwillurgethemtorestructuret,theabovemeasuresofadj,thepublicfundstobepouredbythegovernmenttodealwiththehugeamountofbadclaimswillhaveizationwilcturingaremarkedlyreflectedinthefollowingaspects:First,thestructureofthecapitalmarketisbadlyshaped,,andtheconstraintconditionsofthespecificeconomicandsocialenvironmentinChina,thecapitalmarkethasbeco,importancewasoftengiventoth,butthegrowthofthebondsmarket(particularlythatofenterprisebonds),,smallinscale,,suchasthelong-termbillmarketandthelong-termcreditmarket,areevenmoreinsignificant....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    亿游CQ9发财神ChenXiwenResearchReport,,2000(Total1282)Duringthe9thFive-YearPlanperiod,anoverallbalancewasachievedbetweenthesupplyanddemandofmajoragriculturalproducts,’sagriculture,whichforlong-termtookthesupplyofsufficientfoodandclothingtothepeopleasitsfundamentaltarget,wouldnowenteran’sagriculture,andtheruralareasasawhole,,andsomehaveresultedfromthesurfacingofsomedeeplyrootedconickenthepaceofsystemandorganizationinnovationwillbethekeytosmoothadvanceofChina’sagricultureandruralworkasawholeintoanewperiodofdevelopment,andthecentraltaskinChina’dbasicappr(1).Glaringcontradictionbetandinattentiontoqualitativeoptimizationforlongyearsinthepasthasobviouslybeenrestrictedbydemand.(2).,townshipenterpriseshavegrownnoticeablywe,therurallabourforcehassufferedasetbackinitstransfertosecondaryandtertiaryindustries,andthetotalnumberofemployeesinagriculturehasbouncedback.(3).Increasingdifficultiesinthegrowthofthefarmers’,thegrowthofaverageper-capitanetincomeoffarmershassloweddownandtheruralareaasawholehassunkintoasituationofearningeverlessfromagricultureandrelyingmershasshrunkfortwoyears.(4).Aggravatingpressu,thepricesofcereals,oilsandotherstapleagricultur’sentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization,pressuresfromthisdirectionwillnoticeablyaggravate.(5).Wideningdiscrepancybetweenthe’stownsandvillagesarebasicallyorganizati,however,areoutward-orientedbusinessoperationorganizationsfromwhichtheycangetmarketinformation,technicalandfundsupport,,theestablishmentoffullgovernmentsatthetownlevelhasledtoaswellingoforganizations,staffandexpenditures,broadmassesofpeopleintheruralareas.(6).Growingdistancebetweenasupportiveandprotectiveagriculturalsystemcharacterizedmainlybypriceprot,governmentswouldshoulderheavierburdens,governmentsubsidiescouldhardlygodirectlytofarmers,,thispractimentduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiodThebasicapproachofthoughtsaboutagriculturalandruraldevelopmentatpresentandinthenearfuturehasbeendefinedbythedecisionmadeatthe3rdPl,specialattentionshouldbepaidtothreeissues:(1).Itshouldbestressedthatthestrengtheningofagricu,thecomprehensiveproductioncapacityofChina’,inparticular,ingrainproductionforfiveyears,,itwouldbeeasyforblindoptimismtodevelop,Five-YearPlanperiodhasitsinevitability,butitisalsoattributabletosomespecialfactors,suchassubstantialincreaseofthepricesofgovernmentpurchases,unlimitedpurchaseofgrainatprotectiveprices,,however,thegrowthofthepopulation,decreaseofcultivatedland,shortageofwater,,themarketsan,specialattentionshouldbepaidtostrengtheningthebasicpositionofagriculture,protectingandincreasinggrainproductioncapacityduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiod,periodshouldbeconcentratedmoreonimprovementoftheproduction,livingandmarketconditionsofagricultureandtheruralareasasawhole,promotionofagriculturalscienceandtechnologyandpopularizationofadvancedandapplicabletechnology,establishmentofasystemforcollectionanddisseminationofinformationaboutthemarketsofagriculturalproductsandasystemofqualitystandardsforagriculturalproducts,anddevelopm,thefocusshouldbeputonimprovementofthecomprehensivequalityofagriculture,thequalityofagriculturalproductsandefficiencyofagriculture,andtheincomeoffarmers.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.GuoLihongTheInterimMeasuresfortheControloftheFinancingofSocialSecurityFundthroughtheReductionofSharesHeldbytheState(hereinafterreferredtoasMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofShares)wereformallypromulgatedonJune12,,ChinaSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionhastilysuspendedtheimplem,,theMeasuresintensified(notinduced)thestockmarketvibration,leadingtodisproportionategainsandlossesthoughtheamountofs,itisnotrighttoblameconsumersfornotappreciatingthem,butnecessarytocheckthequality,’smarket,allenterprisesunderstandthisprinciple,whichshouldnotbeoverlookedbyagovernmentthattriestosellitsgoods,thoughthegoodsaresomewhatspecial–suresfortheReductionofHoldingofSharesan,onlyArticle6isappropriateintermofwords,whichsays"thereductionofstate-heldsharesshalladoptmarketpricingmethodinprinciple,",le,,theMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofSharesfailedbyparticularlyholdingontothethreemajorfundamentaldefectsofthestate-ownedeconomy,namelytheambiguouspropertyownershipright,themixing-upofadministrat,nancerevenues,controllocalgovernmentinvestedenterprises,"individual-responsibilityforfinancerevenuesandexpendituresanddifferentlevelsofownershipofgovernmentassets".Theyareparticularlyreflectedintheideaof"investorownershipandinvestorincomeownership",andaregenerallyacknowledgedtruthsinallmarketeconomieswhereprovincial,prefecture,countyandcityenterprisesarenotreferredtoas"stateenterprises".Despitelocalgovernmentownershipoflocalfinancerevenues,enterprisesfinancedbylocalgovernmentsarenotcountedaspropertyoflocalgovernmentsandtheincomesfromreduceds"principles"arenotinventionsoftheMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofShares,theywerereiteratedinArticle3oftheMeasuresas"possessedbythestate,managedatdifferentlevelsandoperatedwithauthorization".Thecapitallinkagebetweeninvestorsandenterpriseshasdisappeared,andhasbeenreplacedinsteadby"youinvestandIown"administrativerelations,velsofgovernmentisahistoricaldefectofthestate-ownedassets,"clearownershipright"hasbeenmadeformanyyears,irproblematicenterprisesandindustriestothelower-levelgovernmentsandtakeovertheprofi,thispracticegeneratessoftresponsibiluetothe"depletion-fearsyndrome".Nomatterifthereisanydepletionunderothersituations,itiscertainthatimmediatelyaftertheadoptionoftheMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofShares,thepropertyoistedcompaniesratherthanlistedones,itisself-evidenthowlocalgovernments,theirholdingcompanies,listedcompaniesandsecudadministrativeandassetmanagementresponsibilitiessplitsthefunctionsoftheassetownersintovariousadministr,articles4,7,8,10,11,12,13and14oftheMeasuresfortheReduction,itincludesexaminationandapprovalbyinter-ministerialjointconference,presidedoverconstantlybytheMinistryofFinance,actuallyoperatedbyChinaSecuritiesReg,suchadivisionofresponsibilitiesdoesnot(alsodoesnotattemptto)removetherootsofthedefect,whichpersistinequityreductionissuesandgivenewtingestothemixedgovernmentadministrationandassetmanagementresponsibilities.(1)Reductionofrgetingonemployeesofthestate-ownedenterprises–thebottleneckofthestate-ownedenterpriseref,itysystemisamajorissuethataffectsthestabilityofthestate-ownedenterprisesaswellasthesociety,andduetolong-timebrewing,,itisthefocusofconcernofthe"administration".Althoughthe"asset"isalsoanassociatedissue,,fina,suchreductionmeanstheexitofgovernmentassets,"asset"ratherthanthatof"administration".TheexitofstateassetsinSingaporewasnamed"assetunloading",whichwasimplementedbyTemarelsHoldingCo.,,theauthoritiessetuptheState-ownedEnterpris,Israelstartedtoaccelerateprivatisationprocessin1997throughtheGovernmentCompaniesAuthority,whichwasadepartmen,,industrialsequence,stepsofreductionoftheholdingofshares,cha,itstillrequiresgreatefforttocarryouttheirfunctions....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,LiShantong,,,generallyknownasthetertiarytrade,encompassesawidespectrumofactivitiesrangin,,spurredbytherapidgrowthoftheinformationtechnology(IT),anewindustrialrevolutionwassweepingacrossthedevelopedeconomies,bringingprofoundtransformationstotheservicetrade:(1)TheInternetande-commercehaveinvigoratedthistraditionalservicesector,makingitpossibletoofferitsproductsacrosstheworld;(2)Theflourishingknowledge-intensiveservicesectorembodiesthevalueofitsproductsinprovidingitsservicesandintellectualpropertyrights,includingcomputersoftware,informationprocessing,RD,testing,marketsurvey,humanresourcedevelopmentandcommercialorganization(managementconsultancyandemployeerecruitment).Intheyearsoftheplannedeconomy,policydiscriminationa,,fgrowthasfinance,insurance,accountingandlegalservicearebyfarnotsufficientinChinatomeettheneedsofeconomicdevelopment,,weshouldconsidertheexpansionofservicetradeasalong-term,yetpressingstrategictask.(1)rPlanperiod(2001-2005).Fromthepointofviewofvariousindustrialsectors,progressreliesonthedevelopmentoftheprimary,,rapi,%,,thusresultinginitsproportioninthenationaleconomyataround50%.Whenabuyer’smarkethastakenshape,gsectororanewgrowtharea,w,thebackwardservicetradehasretardedourcapi,financialinterme,especiallyincreditandsecurities,,,,nvestments,,t,humancapitalha,yetshortperiodofschoolingandweaklifelongeducation,thelaggingofservicetradehasrestrictedtheimprovementofinnovativecapabilities,nnovationandimperfecthnologysharedbymajorplayersincompetition,mostlyenterprisesintheprocessofinnovation,suchasbasictechnologicalknowledge,informationhighway,basicmanufacturingskillsandserviceslikeeconomic/,technologyinfrastructureisclosertothepracticalneedsofenterprises,"publicproduct"andco,rankingatthebottomofthe46countriesandregionsinthesurveyofinternationalcompetitivenessconducted,smarkethastakenshapeinChina,successfuldaheavydragonmarketexpansion.(2)Servicetradedevelop-omy,readjustmen,hwithdrawalofthestateeconomyandastrengthenedcontrolbystatesectoroverthenationaleconomyatthesametime....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.滨海国际PT布法罗闪电战游戏重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,ishedinearly80swhichwasoneoftheproductsofeconomicreformandopeningtotheoutsideworldofChinainthelate70,thepurposeofstudyingandapplicaeldwiththecontriretechnicaldifficultiestogetexactresultsfromeconomicmathematicalmodeling,thisissuecanbeseenclearlyfromthecriticismgivenbyKeynestothepioneeringresearchofmacroeconomicmodelofTinbergen,thattherewereproblemsofmissclassification,multi-collinearityfunctionalform,dynamicspecification,structuralstability,andthediasedoncertaineconomictheory,whilethetransitionaleconomicsoftheformerCentralp,wehavetherecognitionthat"Mathematicalmodelsareimportanttookofforecastingandpolicyanalysis,"Thatis:thefirstpartwillgiveabriefretrospectofthepolicymodelingprojectsthathadbeendonebyuswithinthecontextofbackgrghlydividedintotwoperiodsbaseduponthebroadco(1982-1990)Inthisperiod,Chinaisintheinitialstageofeconomicreformandopening,s(1)Thefirstpioneeringefforttotheapplicationofmathematicalmodelinginpolicyanalysiswasincorporatedintheprojectof"ComprehensivePlanningofShanxiProvince".ThisprojectwasassignedbytheCentralenerythattheearliestformofpolicyanalysisinunderdevelopedcountrieswastypicallydescribedas"developmentplanning,sinceoneofitsp,sinceitisaftertakentoimplygreatergovernmentcontrolofeconomicactivity."Infact,itiswellknowngloballythatagradua,intheprojectof"ComprehensivePlanningofShanxiProvince",Chinahadn,andtheonlyavailablepolicyinstrumentwas"Investmentallocation".:thefirst,theplanningperiodisextendedto20years(1981-2000)comparedtopastpracticeof5-yearplanningperiod,thesecond,ourCenterhadtheprivilegetoorganizevariousgovernmentorganizations,researc,,ThecomprehensiveplanningofShanxiprovince,investmentoncoalsector,electricindustrialplanning,waterresourceutilization,optimalplantation,populationmodel,environmentalprojectionandplanning,educationplanningandprojection,investmentonscienceandresearch,inputoutputoflightindustry,,econometrics,statevectordifferentialequation,linearprogramming,multiplegoalprogramming,decisionanalysisetc.(2)Theresultwasfinallyeditedintoabooktitled"CompilationofEconomicMathematicalModelsofComprehensivePlanningofShanxiProvince."Thispiariousmathematicaltoolstotheeconomicpolicyanalysis,ateamand,theimportanttypesofinteractionamongthepolicyvariables(objectivesandinstruments)andtheconstraintsontheeconomicsystemofShanxiprovincehadbeencorrectlyidentifiedinthespecificationoftheplanningmodel.(3)Duetothenascentstageofeconomicmathematicalmodeling,andalsoweunderstandthekeyissueofeconomicmathematicalmodelingisaninterdisciplinarystudybetweeneconomics,fferentbackground,automation,,itiscommentedintheprefaceoftheaboveeditionthat"Economicmodelingandmathematical"model",statisticaltable,,"model"observationofeconomicphenomena,withappropriateanalysisandsynthesistounderstandclearlytheinterrelationshipofvariablesofvariouseconomicactivity,tocomparethiswithestablishedtheory,andexpresstheserelationshipwithappropriatemathematics."(4)ProjectEvaluationThequestionofhowtoallocateinvestmentandotherscarceresourcesamongsectorsandprojectswasalsoanurgentissueofdevelopmentpolicyfFeasibilityStudyofIndustrialProjects".Wehadorganizedameetinginnationalscale,andabookhadalsobeenpublished.(Reference2)(1)Chil,wehadgottheawarenesstheweaknessoftraditionalSovietmodeloftheplanningsystemwhichbecameinappropriateincurrentstageofChina"InthecaseofRussiaandChina,attheoutsetpredominantlyagrarianeconomieswherethemajorityofcitizenswereilliterate,thetransformationtoanindu,oncetheseeconomiesenteredintermediateorhigherstagesofdevelopmentandresourceallocationchoicesbecamemorecomplicatedwasunabletocope."Therefore,inthenationalpriorityprojectof"ChinatowardtheYear2000"initiatedin1983andcompletedin1985,astrategicdevelopmentplanningwasdevel:Macro-EconomicModelProjectionsofChinatowardtheyear2000andSummaryofDataofChinaTowardtheYear2000.(2)China:EconomicDevelopmentandModelingFourteenmodelshadbeenpreparedintheproject,whichcoveredthestudyofdevelopmentstrategyandpolicyanalysis,macro-economicmodelwithapplicationofeconometrics,macro-economicmodelbaseduponproductionfunctionandanalysisofTFP,populationandcoordinatedeconomicdevelopmentplanningmodel,quantitativeanalysisofeconomicstructures,reproductionoftwomajorsectors,longtermtrendofdevelopmentmodel,I-applicationofsystemdynamics,longtermtrendofdevelopmentmodel,II-Chinassocialeconomicdevelopmentmodel,mediumandlongtermmacro-economicmodel,educationplanningmathematicalmodel,energysystemplanninganddecisionmodel,energydemandmodel,Chinasenvironmentalprojectionmodel,(Seereference3).Thisprojectrepresentsthepolicymodelingw-(1),inaddition,licationofmathematicalmodelinginthenationalexhibitionofcomputerapplication....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Notes:(1),(3),(2),(5)and(7)representpercentagevs.(1);(4),(6)and(8)representproportionvs.(2).Datasources:STATEMENTOFBALANCEOFPAYMENTSbySAFEDuringthe1982-1999period,foreigncapitalreceiptsandpayments(balance),,%,China’scapitalsinflowisinnetterms,andthehugesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpay,FDIinChinarepresentsthelargestelementforitssurplus,,accountingfor81%,FDIisnotonlythegreatestelementforthesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsbutalsothebaseforasustainedsurplusofFDIforalongtime,contributingagreatdealtothegeneralsurplusofChina,anetincreaseisshowninChinasoverseasissuanceofequitysecuritiesandbonds,indi,duringthe1982-1999periodthenetin,%ofthesurplusofforeigncapitals,an,however,adeficitwasrecordedduringthe1996-1999period,mainlyduetoadrasticfallinthesurplusofliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentinthatperiod,,therefore,thatliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentasonesourceofforeigncapitalhavealimitedstimulativeroleinachievi,%ofthebalanceofallforeigncapitalreceiptsandpayments,%ofthetotalsurplusinthebalanceofcapitalreceiptsandpayments,(-),however,,thesurplusofotherinv%ofthatofforeigncapitalsandbeingoneofthethreegr,anditspercentageinthesurplusofforeigncapitalsreducedto45%.Andduringthe1996-1999periodthesurplusofliabilitiesismuchsmallerthanthesurplusofassetsinsize,withitspercentageinthebalanceofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsfallingto5-6%.Thatmeans,duringtheabove-mentionedtwoperiods,theroleofo,becauseotherinvestmentasaformofintroducingforeigncapitalisusuallysmallerthantheincreaseofassetsinsize,,otherinvestmentisanuncertainfactoraffectingthebalanceofforeigncapitalsandcapitalaccountswhenforeigncapitals(mainlytrade-relatedcredits)areutilizedinsuchform,anditsdrasticdecreaseintimesofuncertaineconomicgrowthmorethanoftengivesrisetoadeficitinotherinvestmentreceiptsandpaymentsandeveninthebalanceofcapitalaccounts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ZhangWenkuiInrecentyears,,thereformisfarfromcom"SeparationofGovernmentFunctionsfromEnterpriseManagement"aswellasthe"LinkingUps"andthe"Restructuring"DerivingfromGovernmentInstitutionalReformThegovernmentorganizationalreformwhichstartedin1998hascanceledthespecializedministries,whileenterprisesoriginallyaffiliateddirectlytovariousministrieshavealso"separatedgovernmentfunctionsfromenterprisemanagement""separationofgovernmentfunctionsandenterprisemanagement",however,theseenterpriseshadtobe"linkedup"toothergovernmentandPartyorgans,forafterall,thestate-ownedorthestate-controlledenterprisesarethecarriersofstateassets,soi"linkingups"andthestateassetmanagementsystemTherearethreetypesof"linkingup".Thefirsto"linkup"withtheMinistryofFinanceintermsofassets,andwiththenewlyestablishedCentralEnterpriseWorkingCommitteeortheOrganizatio"linkup",theyshouldfacethe"restructuring"consequenceoftheprevioustwotypesofenterprisesand"linkup",thegovernmenthasthusentrustedthefirsttwotypesofenterprisestomanagethethirdgroup,aswellastosuper,itis"detachment"ontheonehandand"linkingup",itissimilartothedistributingofenterprisemanagementauthorityamongspecializedandcomprehensivedepartmen"detachment",thegovernmentisfacedwit,thegovernmenttriestomaintainandincreasethevalue,itsupervisestheenterprisesandtheirmanagerialpersonnelthroughspecialinspectors(whohavebeenchangedtoexternalinspectors),theauthorizedmanagementcontractsincreasetheresponsibilitiesofandthepressuresontheenterprisesandtheirmanagers,andthes,thecontractedstate-ownedassetmanagement,itisdifficultforthespecialinspectorsandtheappointedaccountantst"restructuring"andtheenterpriseincentivemechanismInfact,the"restructuring"ment,ith,theremnantclaimingandcontrollingpowersofthestate-ownedenterpriseshav,after20years’reformandopeningup,thestate-ownedenterprisesarenolongerthe"purelystate-ownedenterprises",but"sharedenterpriseswithstateownership".,asthe"restructuring"dismantlesthestabilityofthecontrollingpowerandthedistributionsystemofthethirdgroupofenterprises,,the"restructured"state-ownedenterpriseswillsufferfrominsufficientdevelopmentdrive,"Dilution"and"Exit"oftheState-ownedStockEquitiesTheso-calledsystemreformistoreformthetraditionalstate-own,thesystemreformofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshasbeenimplementedwidelyinChina,whilethatofthesmallstatofthenewshareholders,thediverseequityownershipmayinclude"externaldiversificationofequityownership"and"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersmainlyconsistofinternalstaffandworkers,includingthemanagerialpersonnel,itbelongsto"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersaremainlycomposedofexternallegalandnaturalpersons,itbelongsto"externaldiversificationofequityownership".Intermsofthetotalsizeoftheequityandthetotalsizeofthestate-ownedequity,thereare"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Capitalexpansionthroughlistingandtargetedstockfloatingis"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution",whic,thesellingandtransferofthestate-ownedsharesbelongtothe"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Thestate-ownedenterprisescontrolledbytheCentralGovernmenthavemainlyachievedtheirdiversificationofequityownershipthrough"externaldiversification"and"diversificationthroughdilution".Whereas,mostofthestate-ownedenterprisesandthe"restructured"enterprisescontrolledbylocalgovernmentsrealizedtheirequitydiversificationthroughthecombinationof"externaldiversification"and"internaldiversification",andthecombinationof"diversificationthroughdilution"and"diversificationthroughexit".Thespecificwaysincludethefollowing:transferringorsellingthestate-ownedsharesorthestate-ownedassetstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkersofenterprises,privateenterprisesandexternalnaturalpersons;capitalexpansionbysellingstockstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkers;,manystate-ownedenterprisesand"restructured"enterprisesc,inthesystemreform,thereisanabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandstate-ownedassetsellingsystemthatistransparent,icesarereasonable,,thecasemayberuledas"lossofthestate-ownedassets".Inreality,"sharedstate-ownedenterprises"sincethereformandopeningup,themanagerialpersonnelandthestaffandworkersonlywishtoturnsuch"sharing",the"lossofthestate-ownedassets"orthedebtevasionintentionusuallybecomestheobstacletothe"exit","dilution"afundedsystemoveralongtime,andthestaffandworkersconsiderthattheyshouldbecompensatedthro"repay"thesocialsecuritydebt,"unauthorizedprivatization"Theabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandsellingsystemthatistransparent,competitiveandacceptabletothecreditorsmakes"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit""sharing"legitimateandclear,"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theirmanagerialpersonnelsplittheenterprisesandadopt"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theseparatedpartsofthe,somemanagerialpersonnelhavetransferredtheprofitsfromlargestate-ownedenterprisestotheirseparatedpartsbymeansofinternaltransaction,andthusquicklydrainedtheprofitsofthelargestate-ownedenterprise....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.’sAutomobileIndustryNotCompetitiveOfthemanyindustriesinChina,,Chinahasseensomefast-developingindustries,,theyaregenerallyhealthyanddynamic,andoutperformotherindustriesinproductupgrading,technologicalprogress,quality,serviceandguaranteeingconsumers’’hefactthattheyhaveexperiencedaprocessofmarketopeningandintensivecompetition,thussolvingthethreekeyproblemscrucialtothedevelopmentofanindustry:First,the"discovery","screened"throughcompetitionbeforebeing"discovered".Anyindividualsororganizationsincludingthegove’sadvan,thelearningandtrainingofenterprises’competitiveness."Competitivenesscanonlybeacquiredthroughcompetition"’smarketing,management,RDandfinancingabilitiescanonlybeacquiredandaccumulatedfromthetwistsandturnsinthecourseofcompetition,andconsequently,theorganization,,,,raiseproductquality,improveservices,,bothbelongingtoprocessing,assemblingandmanufacturingindustries,aresimilarintermsoftechnologicalandmarketstructure,forinstance,theybothhaveahighdemandforscaleeconomyan,autoindustryhasnotshowntheactivedevelopmentmom,weshould,inparticular,reflectonandexamine,inadditiontotherestrictiononthemodel,varietyandspecificationofautomobiles,thecompetitionisnotcompleteandlimited,andfrombeingunleashed,andatthesametime,"EstablishingtheCompetitiveEdgeasaBigCountryintheCourseofOpening":TheOptionfortheDevelopmentPatternofChina’sAutoIndustryundertheNewSituationThedevelopmentpatternofChina’sautoindustryunderthenewsituationshouldproceedfromthecurrentdomesticandofautoindustry,especiallythoseofthenewlydevelopedcountries,"establishingthecompetitiveedgeasabigcountryinthecourseofopening".Thismeans,firstly,,weshouldgraduallyintegratetheautoindustryintothesystemofinternationalworkingdivisionundertheframeworkofWTOsoastoadapttoandmakeuseof,notreject,,Ch,itshouldtakeanactivep,,theadvantagesofChina’sautoindustryincludetheoverallcapabilityofthemanufacturingindustry,,,strategyandpoliciesundertheopeningpolicyinordertoturnthere,,China’shugemarketwillyi,China’sdom,itcanalsoprovidespacelargeenoughforala,Chinesemarketisnotonlylarge,butalsoappearstobeobviouslymulti-layered,whichisconduc,thenewdevelopmentpatternshouldincludethefollowingfeatures:mobilesinthefuture20to30years,China’scurrentautoindustrywithmanufacturingandm,therewillbeanecessary,possible,toputitmoreprecisely,unavoidableprocessofcompetitiondesignedtoselectadvantageousenterprises,raiseenterprises’urrentindustrialbasis,thegradualentryoftransnationalcorporationsandthegovernment’srationalpolicyguidance,competitionwithintheautoindustrymaytakeondifferentcharacteristicsfromthatintheelectricalapplianceindustry,andthe;asthegovernment’sdirectinvestmentstops,variousresponsibleinvestorsincludingnon-stateinvestorsshouldbeallowedtoentertheindustry;theadministrativemonopolybydepartmentsandregionsshouldbefurtherdoneawaywithsoastoformanopenandunifieddomesticmarket;competitionordershouldberegulated,andnewsystemthactiveandfullcompetition,,wewillhaveeveryreasontopredictthatinashortperiodoftime(fiveyearsorlonger),Chinawillhaveabatchofcompetitiveenterpriseswithinitialinternationalcompetitiveness,whichincludejointventureenterprises,solely-foreigninvestedenterprises,ionalcorporationswillbeacomponentofthecountry’’sentryintoWTO,thetransnationalcorporationswillhavetwochoices:first,exportingcarstoChina,second,,’sentryintoWTO,weshouldrelaxorabolishtherestrictionontheequityandlocalizationratesetforforeigninvestorsatapropertimesothattheywouldmakemelyimportanttoproductupgrading,speedinguptransnationalcorporations’transferoftechnologiestoChina,,weshouldencouragedomesticenterprisesandenterpriseswithdomesticcapitaltocultivatetheircorecompetitivenessandsupportthemtocooperatewithforeign-investedenterprisesinvariousforms(notjustjointventure),especiallytheireffortindeveloping,upgradingandenlargingthescaleofRD,ndentde,butmoreoften,theywillcooperate,uniteandmerge,eventuallyraisingtheoverallcompetitivenessofChina’sautomobileindustry....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ZhangChenghuiResearchReportNo162,cingactivityreferstoinformallyorganizedpublicfinvestmentandfinancingprocesseswherethesurplussocialcapitalsaretransfondepartmentsaresovigorousistyaimedatservingtheprivateeconomyandfillingupthevacancyofthesupplyanddemandmarket,ficultiesSincethereformandopeningup,China’,householdindus,,,theto,,,,ts"supplementary"s,however,thefinancingdifficultythathasalsystemandstructuralproblemsintheformalfinancialsystem,neitherthecapitalmarketnorthefundmarkethasev,about80percentoftheenterprisesregardfinancingdifficultyastheirmajordevelopmentobstacle,andover90percentofhouseholdandprivateenterprise(exceptlistedcompanies),theirowncapitaltakesup65percent,privateloansandcommercialcreditstakeup25percent,bankloansonlytakeup10percent,rivateenterprisescanhardlysatisfytheircapitaldemandthroughformalchannels,informalfinancingactivitieshaveremainedvigorousinareaswithdevelopedprivateeconomyandhavebecomeamajorsourceyrestrictedvarioustypesofprivatefinancingactivitiesandstrictlybanned"illegalfundraising"activities,,theymainlytakethefollowingways:,privateborrowingmarkethasneverceasedthanthatofbanklending,manyurbanresidentsinvestedtheirfundsintothismarketall-sizedenterprises,downstreamenterprisesdelaytheirpaymentsforupstreamenterprises,enterprisesdelaypaymenttooneanother,a,whenenterprise,theguaranteedenterpriseusesitsenterpriypartytodoso,thecreditor’,significantnumberofunderground(orsemi-underground)privatebanksandmiddlemenhds,:First,strength,buttheyhavetopayinterestsforinformalfinancingatadoubleratethanthatoftheformalfinancing,,’scapitalmarketrevealsthatthecostforlistingisveryhighwhetheranenterprisegetsdirectlylisted,orthroughpurchasingthemajor,,,duetohighinvestmentrisks,,,asthesharesofnon-listedcompaniescanhardlycirculate,manyundergroundtransactionstookplace,,undergroundstocktransactionsusedtoprevailinXi’an,Chengdu,Hainan,,theincomesfromstockownershiptrusteeofonly50enterprisesdelistedfromthestockexchangeamountedtoRMB30millioninoneyear,uitycirculationbycertaindegree,theyalsocreatedlotsof"primarysharefrauds".Somecompaniesjoinedtoge,aldoesnotonlyintensifytheproblemofchain-debtsinsociety,,,inter-en,however,,somelawlesspeoplehaveexploit,withsomeloansgrownfromthesizeof"ant"intothatof"elephant",andtheborrowersbeenruined,whichseriouslyaffectedsocialstability....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1DatafromtheAll-ChinaFederationofIndustryandCommerce.、滨海国际PT布法罗闪电战游戏用户至上澳门1号MG奔月传说游戏XieFuzhanandYuBinSincethebeginningofthisyear,,,’,thestatetookmeasurestodivertlaid-offworkersinthestate-ownedenterprises,reformthegovernmentinstitutions,pushforwardthehousingcommercializationandreformmedicalcare,,thesereformshavehadnegativeimpactontheresidents’,thecomprehensiveeffectofreformhasgraduallybecomeobvious–residents’expectationsh,%.Duringthe"goldenweek"inMay,thenumberoftouristssurpassed70millionperson/,’%,%.Althoughmostoftheproductsareinoversupply,andtheslightgrowthofpricesiscausedbythepriceriseineducation,housing,publicservices,petroleum,petrochemicalsandsteel,,andhousing,carandoth,%%%,,%,%oftherealestateinve%%,ofwhich,%,%.InApril,%%.Inlargecities,suchasBeijing,individualsboughtmorethan80%,,e%,the%,700state-,,theeconomywillfacequiteafewdifficultiesinthelatterhalfoftheyearduetothechangeofinternationaleconomicenvironmentandth,,China’(Spring)issuedbytheInternationalMonetaryFundinlateApril,%%%%.Generallyspeaking,,,wecanseethatthereexistmanydisputesontheforecastofAmericaneconomy,butthemaindivergenceliesinthejudge,,theeconomyintheASEANcountriesrepresentsvariablefactors,whosenegativeimpactoverChina’,foreigntradegrowthwasdeclining,ofwhich,%,theleadingindicatorsofprocessingtradeexportandthesituationinkeyexportareas,,,en,theUSdollar-linkedexchangemechanismofrenm,toacertainextent,weakentheinternationalcompetitivenessofChineseproducts,lowerthepricesofimportedproducts,,wecanseethatiftheannualexportsonlyincreaseby5%andimportsincreaseby15%,thenetde’simportandexportproductsareconsidered,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.dGuaranteeSysteminChinaSince1998,governmentsatalllevelsbeganexploringthepossibilityofhelpingsmallandmedium-sizedheendofJunethisyssurveyshowsthatthisnetworkdidplayapositiveroleidmedium-sizedenterprisesinoperationcanbesummarizedasfollows:(1)CorporateguaranteeinstitutionsasthemainbodyofthecurrentguaranteesystemMostoftheexistinginstitutionsarecreditguaranteeentities,naggregate,communityandinstitutionlegalentities,ofwhich,inantlybythegovernment(largelywithfiscalfunds),,withindependentaccountingandoperations,responsiblefortheirownprofitsandlosses.(2)HighdispersionasthemaintendencyofguaranteeinstitutionsUnderthegovernmentsponsorshipatvariouslevels,smallandmedium-sizedcreditguaranteeinstitutionshavemushroomedoverthepasttwoyearsinvillages,townships,nofgovernmentleaders,yspecialdepartments,suchasfinancialbureau,townshipenterprisebureau,economicandtradecommissionorassociationofindustryandcommerce,whoserules,haiBranchoftheChinaEconom,theirproviders--financialdepartmentsofvillage,townshipordistr,dispersionevencharacterizestheirdecision-makingmechanism.(3)SmallsizeastheirgeneralcharacterThishas,,thelargesthad10employees,wheDespitetheirpositiveroleindemonstrationandpromotionforcreditguarantee,theseguaranteeinstitutionsarealsoplaguedwiththefollowingnoteworthyproblems:(1)Absenceof,thefundsoftheguaranteeinstitutionsaremostlyonelumpsumfromlocalfiscalbu,havingnooptionotherthanraisingguaranteeconditions.(2)Absenceofrisk-sharingmechanismwithbank,guaranteeinstitutionsgenerallyshoulder70to80percento,fragilestrengthandweaknegotiationpositionmadeitpossibleformostbankstoshiftrisksinvolvedinprovidingcreditforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestotheguaranteeinstitutions,withmanyofthemforcedtoundertake100%capacity,butalsoweakenedthebanksexaminationandassessmentoftheenterprises,thusaggravatingrisksasawhole.(3)Lackofstandardizedmanagementan,atpresent,hems,,absenceofhorizontalexchangechannelsamongguaranteeinsti,creditguaranteerequiresexpertiseinfinance,fiscal,law,t-timeemployeesorretirees,,,thismanageme,excessiveguaranteesumforasingleprojectandotherabuses.(4)PronetoimproperandunfairfunddistributionThoughtheoreticallyofpublicwelfareandformassivesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinfundutilization,theco,thenatureofthecorporatesystemmadeitdifficultforthesegovernment-sponsoredguaranteecompaniestobeimmunetoprofittemptations,,someguaranteecompanieswereapttopreferlargeenterprisesandloathethesmallon,,nosh’ssubsidiesagainstriskstoprivateshareholders,alprocess,high,thec,theguaranteeinstitutionsbasicallyofferedtheirservicesonlyforcirculatingfunds,,,theguaranteeinstitutionsdemanded30%asguaranteefund,bankdemandedanother15%asguaranteefund,,,oftheguaranteesofferedbytheCreditGuaranteeAssociationintheYamagataCountyofJapan,70%requirednomortgage,withtheproportionoffundsgoingforequipmentinvestmentsreaching58%andthatlastingfromthreetotenyearshitting61%(seeCreditGuaranteeMonthly,,2001,publishedbytheYamagataCountyCreditGuaranteeAssociation).Clearly,servicesprovidedbytheexistingguaranteeinstitutionsinChinacanhardlymeetfinancingdemandsofthelargenumbersofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.SincethecurrentroundofglobaldecelerationofeconomicgrowthhasresultedfrommarketsurplusofITproducts,’scase,however,exportsoftraditionalproductsslackened,withthegrowthrateoftextilerawmaterialsandtextileproducts,shoes,headwear,%%,andthatofsomete,thetradeofelectro-machineryandhi-techproductswasextremelybrisk,%%eformofprocessingtrade,theirgrowingindicatesthatthegrowthoftheaggregatevolumeofChina’stradeandtheimprovementofstructureisipalitiesintheWesternRegionandBigFallofExportsintheSouthernandtheNortheasternReg,forinstance,%;Jiangsu,%;andShanghai,14%.%growth;Qinghai,%;andGansu,%.Whathasbeeneye-catching,however,isthatgrowthofexportsinth,-%.GuangdongProvince,whichcontributesonethirdtoChina’sexports,%,acityinGuangdongProvince,%torinthesubstantialdecelerationofthegrowthspeedofChina’,andInitialSuccessinTappingNewMarketsItisapparentthatChina’sex,China’sexportstoJapan,EuropeandtheUnitedStates,threeofitsmajorexportmarkets,%,9%%,China’,theChineseGovernmentandtheChineseenterpriseshavemadevigorouseffortstoop’sexportstoAfricaandLatinAmerica,forinstance,stoodat21%%’%%onservicesontheChinesemainland,Hong’sSituationinForeignTradeThecharacteristicsofChina’sforeigntradeintheyear2001,asdescribedabove,haveresultedfromthejointactionofmanyfactors,includingthefollowingbasicfactors:Firstofall,,,’,andbecomeamajorfactortoblamefortheslowdownofChina’’sexportsareexecutedintheformofprocessingtrade,slowdownofexportshasresultedinaslowergrowthofimportsintheformofprocessingtrade....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、DVORGeYanfengResearchReportNo83,2001Theissueofincomedistribution,however,istheobviousdisagreementintheanalysisandjudgmentarenteffectsengendered;itisthereforen,theoutstandingprobleminincomedistributionhadbeenegalitarianismcausedbythesystemofcen,therewasnotonlytheproblemofegalitarianismleftoverfromthesystemofcentrallyplannedincomedistribution,butalsothatofwideningincomegaparisingfromtheeconomicsystemreformandthemajorchangeinincomedistribution,,whatistheoutstandingproblem–egalitarianismandwideningincomegap,coexistatpresentandtheyareratheracute;,differencebetweentwojudgmentsactuallyconcentratesontheproblemofegalitarianism,thatis,,theproblemofegalitarianism,particularlytheminorincomegapinandamongthestate-owneddepartments,ismostoutstanding,,judgingfromthegeneralsituation,theboomingnon-statesectors,bothinthecountrysideandcities,decidetheirincomedistributionmechanismbymarketcompetition,andwiththeincomegapwidened,,asthereformadvances,state-ownedenterpriseshaveessentiallyestablishedtheirroleaskeymarketplayers,aduallywidening,andinsomeenterprises,,onecanhardlyjumptotheconclusionthategali,thedistributionsystemcharacterizedbyegalitarianismthatwecouldseeisthebasicwagedistributionmainlyingovernmentdepartments,,however,isthatthebasicwagesconstituteasmallportionofincome,andtherearestillotherformsofdistributionasnon-wagecashdistr,itisalsodifficulitarianisminincomedistribution,sometendtoadvocatethegovernment’sspeedingupwagereformsinthestate-ownedsectors,orinsimplewords,furtherwideningthewagedistributiongapwithanaimtosolvethetate-ownedsectorsisconsideredaproblem,suchanproposalasdi,,inprinciple,relyonincreasingthetotalpayroll,furtheriillintheloss-makingstatusmanylocalgovernmentshavefinancialdifficulties,itishardtopredictifthereissufficientcapabilitytomakesuchadjustmentorwhatconse,itishighlypos,non-wagecashincomeandnon-cashincomeinvariousformsmakealargeandunevenproportioninthetotalincomedistribution,,thedifference,bigorsmall,,itishig,theincomedistributioninthestate-ownedandstateholdingenterprisesinthecompetitivefieldsshallbegraduallyliberalizedonthebasisofdiversifiedstockrightsandimprovementintheinternalcorporategovernance,utionofenterprises,itwouldbedetrimentaltotherelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandenterprises,neitherwillitbeconstructivet,itishighlyposs,institutionsandindustrieswithnaturalmonopolyshouldbecontrolledbythegovernment,butsuchcontrolandtheextentofcontrolmustbedecidedwithreferencetosuchfactorsassocialaveragewagesonthebasisofintroducinginte,simplyimposingwagecontrolisextremelyundesirableforvariousreformmeasures,,,itisobviousthatpublicattentionconcentratesontheproblemofthewideningincomegap,,itisabsolutelyunwisetoregardas,itshouldbeconductedonthebasisofathoroughreformofpersonnelsystemanddistributionmethods(suchasfullmonetizationofincomeandanadequatetruthfulnessofwages).anceofthesocietySincetheadoptionofreformandopeninguppolicy,thewideningincomegapamongresidentsand,ther,leranceofsociety,toapproachtheextremelimitofunacceptabilitybythesociety,,theestimatedGinicoefficient(withurbanandruralcombined)’incomeandurbanincomeandseriousstatisticalerrorsinhighincomesandillegalincomes,,socialc,awideincomegapinevitablymeanspovertyforsomepeople,orevenalargeproportionofthesocialmembers,,weshouldbeonthefullalertforthecurrentobjectiveincomegap,letaloneotherfactors....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.GeYanfengTherapideconomicdevelopmentsincereformandopening-,however,thecontradictionofincomedistributionhasbecomemoreandmoreapparentwitheachpassingdayandbeguntoproducenegativeimpactuponthest,andespeciallyduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiod,,,,itwouldindicateextremeinequalityandforete,thegapofincomeswasnotverybigeitherbetweenurbanresidentsorbetweenruralresidents,,theGinicoefficie,nthetendencytooverestimatetheincomesofgroups,forinstance,,ontheotherhand,thenon-currencybenefitincomesofthosegroupswithhighincomesstillaccountforaverybigproportionogofthegapofincomes,ommissionsincludingtheNationalBureauoealedthattheproportionofthebankingdepositsoftheruralhouseholdsaccountingfor20percentofthetotalnumberoftheruralhousehold,itisnotraretoseeindividualhousehold,,therearestilltensofmillionsofpeoplewhohavenotyetsolvedtheirproblemoffoodandclothing;andintheurbanareas,thenumberofhouseholdswhoseaverageper-capitamonthlyincomeandexpenditureislessthan100yuanaccountedforsuchabigproportionas6percentofthetotalnumberoftheurbanhouseholdssampledinadoo,however,thatthewideningofthegapofincomeshasbeg,ecitieshaverevealed,forinstance,thatofthe20percenthouseholdswithlowincomes,morethan70percentinallthecitiescoveredinthesurveysawadecreaseintheiractualincomesin1999ascomparedwith1998,,thewideningofthegapofincomesintermsofpolarizationoftherichandthepoorandthatingofthegapofincomeshasnotonlymanifesteditselfinthepolarizationoftherichandthepoorintermsofindividualsocialmembers,,betweendifferentregions,andbetweendifferentindustriesandsectors,ofwhich,thebiggestproblemliesinentheurbanandtheruralareasandthatbetweendifferentregionsinourcountryhavenowoutgro,polarizationbetweenthestratumwithhighincomesandthatwithlowincomes,andtheformationofapoorstratuminparticular,,itisthefarmersinpoverty-strickenareasthathaveformedthepoorstratum;andintheurbanareas,thepoorstratumismainlycomposedofthestaffandworkerswhoarebeingemployed,(laidoff)orretiredfromstateorcollectively-ownedenterpriseswithpooreconomicbenefits,apartfromthevulnerablegroupofthesocietyincludingwidowers,widows,orphans,thechildless,thesick,andthedisabled.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuZhongyuanResearchReportNo139,2002Abstract:Thisarticlefirstanalysedthestatisticindicators,includingthegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestment,itsproportionintotalsocialinvestmentasbeenacceleratinganwthofnon-governmentinvestment,andeventuallyputforwardseveral:non-governmentinvestmentstatusproposalStatisticalanalysesdemonstratethatnon-governmentinvestmenthasbeenacceleratinginrecentlyyearsanditsproportreasing,,,thegrowthofnon-governme,ofinvestmentsmadebythestateeconomy,theforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsandthetotalsociety;ofwhich,,Chinahassuccessivelyissuedtreasurybondsintheinvestmentsectortopullthegrowthofoveralldemandforinvestment,,totalsocialinvestmentincreasedby13%,,withmajorbeneficiarybeingthestateeconomy,treasurybondsinvestm,peoplehavebeenw,however,itwasonlyin1998thatthegrowthofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomywash,therespectiveratesofgrowthofinvestmentsmadebythecollective,privateandothereconomieswereallhigherthanthatofthestateeconomyingeneral;ofwhich,thegrowthofinvestmentmadeby"othereconomies"wasover28%fortwoconsecutiveyears(seeTable1).Amongvarioustypesofeconomies,,,%,investmentmadebytheforeign,HongKong,,%.Theaveragegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentisnotonlyhigherthanthatofthestateeconomy,,th%,%,%%;%,%,%%perannum,tofthestateinvestment,theproportionofinvestmentmadebyjointstockeconomyisgrowingremarkably,theproportionbyinvestmentbyforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsisdropping,whilethedependencylevelofthewholesocialinvestmentongovernmentdirectinvestmentisdecreasingInthepastfewyears,theproportionofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentinthetotalinvestmentofthewholesocietycontinuouslydemonstratedagrowingtrend,whiletheproportionsofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomyandtheforeign,HongKong,,theproportionsofstateinvestment,domesticnon-governmentinvestmentandforeign,HongKong,%,%%%,%%,theproportionofdomesticnon-government,,,theproportionofinvestmentofthecollectiveeconomyfellslowlyby2percentagepoints,andtheproportionofinvestmentofforeign,HongKong,,theproportionofinvestmentofprivateeconomy,especiallythatofthejointstockeconomy,,,theproportionofstateinvestmentinthewholesocietygrewmarginallyin1998and1999,,%%.Meanwhile,amongchangesintheproportionsofnon-governmentinvestment,%%,%%,andthatofothereconomiesgrewfrom18%%,ofwhich,%%(seeTable2).Thisindicatedthatwhiletreasurybondsinvestmentconcentratedinthestatesector,domesticnon-governmentinvestmentwasgettingmoreandmoreactive,andtheinvestmentofthejointstockeconomywasespeciallyvigorousandsawthefastestofgrowth.。

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